Integration (Hindi)

fdlh ,d dEiuh ds vyx&vyx O;olk;ksa dks yEccr~ ;k lery (vertical or horizontal) vk/kkj ij ,d= dj nsuk ,dhdj.k (integration) dgykrk gSA

yEcor~ vk/kkj ij ,dhdj.k ds vUrxZr mu O;olk;ksa dks tksM+k tkrk gS tks ,sls dke djrs gSa tks dEiuh dh ekStwnk O;kolkf;d xfrfof/k ds ;k rks Bhd igys ;k Bhd ckn esa vkrs gSaA tSls dksbZ dkj fuekZrk ;fn LVhy dk dkj[kkuk yxk, rks ;g ^fiNyh vksj yEcor~ ,dhdj.k* (Backward vertical integration) dgyk,xkA ;fn og dkj fuekZrk dkj ds QqVdj O;kikfj;ksa dh Ja`[kyk dks [kjhn ys rks ;g ^vfxze yEcor~ ,dhdj.k* (forward vertical integration) dgk tk,xkA

;fn dkj fuekZrk Vªdksa dk fuekZ.k ”kq# dj ns rks bls lery ,dhdj.k (Horizontal integration) dgsaxsA

gj rjg ds ,dhdj.k dh viuh ykxras ;k uqdlku vkSj vius ykHk gksrs gSaA lery ,dhdj.k ds vUrZxr cM+h ek=k esa dPps eky vkSj dyiqtksZa dh [kjhn tSlh dk;Zokfg;ksa ls vDlj cM+s iSekus dh cprsa (economies of scale) izkIr dh tk ldrh gSaA yEcor~ ,dhdj.k ls QeZ ds vkxrksa&fuxZrksa (inputs and outputs) ij csgrj fu;a=.k ik;k tk ldrk gSA bl izfØ;k dh ykxrksa ;k uqdlkuksa vkSj ykHkksa dk igys ls vuqeku yxk ysuk ;k mudh Hkfo’;ok.kh djuk dHkh Hkh vklku ugha gksrk gSA ,d egRoiw.kZ ,oa fu.kkZ;d vkdyu ;g gksuk pkfg, %& ;fn ,dhdj.k lQy u gqvk rks fo?kVu (disintegration) ds D;k D;k [krjs gSa \